Journal Basic Info

  • Impact Factor: 1.989**
  • H-Index: 6
  • ISSN: 2637-4625
  • DOI: 10.25107/2637-4625
**Impact Factor calculated based on Google Scholar Citations. Please contact us for any more details.

Major Scope

  •  Endocrine Surgery
  •  Plastic Surgery
  •  Cancer Surgery
  •  Bariatric Surgery
  •  Emergency Surgery
  •  Otolaryngology & ENT Surgery
  •  Urological Surgery
  •  Pediatric Surgery


Citation: World J Surg Surg Res. 2019;2(1):1103.DOI: 10.25107/2637-4625.1103

Etiology-Based Treatment Strategy for Excessive Gingival Display: Literature Review

Joanna Bek Ser Yun, Mengqi Luo, YiJia Yin, Victoria Lee Zhi Hui, Bing Fang and Xiang Long Han

Department of Orthodontics and Pediatric Dentistry, Sichuan University, China

*Correspondance to: Xiang Long Han 

 PDF  Full Text Review Article | Open Access


To-date, ‘pink esthetics’ raises a great concern among various disciplinaries in cosmetic dentistry. When one smiles, not only teeth are visible but for some, gingiva is also noticeable. ‘Gummy smile’ is a descriptive term for excess gingival display. Excessive gingival display is classified by the American Academy of Periodontology (AAP) as a mucogingival deformity and condition that occurred around the teeth. Even though gummy smile is only a defining sign rather than a diagnosis, symptomatic treatment is important and should be emphasized. Esthetic correction requires an understanding of the true etiology behind the presenting flaws. The manifestation of gummy smile is interdependent on many factors. These include the craniofacial features, dentogingival complex, oral muscles, soft tissue anatomy, iatrogenic factors and a combination of these. The principal aim of this article is to summarize the treatment modalities for gummy smile, their applications, improvement in skills and techniques, and their potential complications and solutions based on individual etiologic factors.


Cite the Article:

Ser Yun JB, Luo M, Yin Y, Zhi Hui VL, Fang B, Han XL. Etiology-Based Treatment Strategy for Excessive Gingival Display: Literature Review. World J Surg Surgical Res. 2019; 2: 1103.

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Etiology-Based Treatment Strategy for Excessive Gingival Display: Literature Review
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