World J Surg Surg Res | Volume 3, Issue 1 | Research Article | Open Access

Distribution of Available Sites for Internal Fixation of Zygomatic Complex Fractures and Its Effect on Treatment Outcome

Jatinder Pal Singh Chawla*, Nageshwar Iyer, Atul Sharma, Ramesh Ram Fry, Amit Bali and Pavneet Kaur Pandher

Department of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery, MM College of Dental Sciences & Research, India

*Correspondance to: Jatinder Pal Singh Chawla 

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Objective: To identify fractures sites from clinical and radiological assessment, verify fractures sites
on surgical exploration, qualify fractures sites in terms of their amenability to sound internal fixation
and to prepare frequency table of sites amenable for sound internal fixation and sites actually fixed
out of total number of sites.
Materials and Methods: In 30 ZMC fracture patients, maximum possible number of fracture
sites was noted out of zygomatic-frontal, infraorbital margin, zygomatic-maxillary buttress and
zygomatic arch which was compared with sites noted on clinico-radiological examination, surgically
exposed sites, sites amenable for fixation and actually fixed sites.
Results: ZMC fractures were commonly found of classes IIIB and VII according to Modified Rowe
& Killey classification. Zygomatico maxillary buttress site was more commonly identified among
clinical examination, radiological examination, surgically explored sites, sites found amenable
for fixation, and sites actually fixed. Identified fracture sites by combined clinical & radiological
examination were more common in class IIIB, IVA, VC and VII. Surgical exploration of identified
sites was significantly done mainly on zygomatico maxillary buttress site to approach fractured
ZMC complex. Among all sites, infraorbital rim was the site mostly found amenable for fixation.
The most reliable and consistent site for actual fixation was fronto-zygomatic site.
Conclusion: The preferred method should be selected individually on the basis of fracture type and
patient’s characteristic. Successful surgical treatment is influenced by geometry and whether or not
alignment may be consistently achieved by open reduction at single or multiple locations which may
vary with surgeon’s experience.


Zygomatico-maxillary complex fractures; Fracture reduction; Sites amenable for fixation; Sites actually fixed; Treatment outcome


Singh Chawla JP, Iyer N, Sharma A, Ram Fry R, Bali A, Pandher PK. Distribution of Available Sites for Internal Fixation of Zygomatic Complex Fractures and Its Effect on Treatment Outcome. World J Surg Surgical Res. 2020; 3: 1216..

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